Electric traction vehicles
Iveco helped pioneer electric traction, and designed and built its first electrically powered Daily back in 1986, gradually rolling out the technology into its other truck and urban bus ranges.
The ECODaily Electric is a zero local emissions light commercial vehicle, designed, built, sold and serviced entirely by Iveco.
The ECODaily Electric is a battery powered electric propulsion vehicle. An inverter controlled electric motor provides the drive and recovers kinetic energy on braking. The ECODaily Electric is available in a 35S version (van or chassis cab ) with a 60 kW peak power electric motor-generator and a 50C version (van, chassis cab and minibus), with an 80 kW peak power electric motor-generator.
The ECODaily Electric is equipped with sealed Na/NiCl2 (Sodium Nickel Chloride) batteries that do not produce gaseous emissions, require no servicing, are totally recyclable and are rated at a nominal 278 Volts. Depending on version and autonomy requirements, the ECODaily Electric can be equipped with two to four batteries , with a regenerative braking system for recharging the batteries and boosting autonomy. Top speed is electronically limited to 70 km/h, while autonomy ranges from 90 to 130 km at full load, depending on the number of batteries installed and the nature of the mission.
The vehicle is equipped with one on-board battery charger for each traction battery installed, as well as a sufficient number of three phase 380 V / 32 A power sockets. Recharging takes eight hours. Battery weight used to be a limit to the practicality of electric vehicles by reducing maximum payload. Iveco has now substantially overcome this problem: with two batteries installed, the ECODaily Electric weighs only 300 kg more than the standard Diesel version when unladen.
The electric traction systems are controlled by a dedicated ECU that communicates via a CAN network. The auxiliary systems, such as the battery cooling system and the braking servo pump, are powered by 12 V electric motors controlled by DC/DC inverters. The power steering pump is powered directly by the DC traction battery.
A display on the dashboard is connected to the CAN line and provides the driver with all the information he needs to drive the vehicle correctly: battery state of charge, voltage, temperature, battery current and information on the functioning of the electric drive system. The ECODaily Electric is quite intuitive to drive and is similar to a conventional van with an automatic transmission.
The ECODaily Electric adapts perfectly to all typical missions in urban areas, including door-to-door distribution and urban passenger transport.
Diesel-electric hybrid vehicles
Hybrid drive systems deliver considerable benefits in terms of driver comfort and reduced fuel consumption, making for savings that - depending on the mission – can be as much as 30% compared to conventional vehicles.
These excellent results are achieved by means of three main solutions:
• A regenerative braking system: when the accelerator is released, or when the brake is applied, the electric motor converts some of the vehicle’s kinetic energy into electrical energy to recharge the batteries.
• Stop&Start: the Diesel engine is automatically switched off when it is not needed to drive the vehicle or power its auxiliary systems. Only the electric motor is used to start the vehicle moving. The Diesel engine is then restarted automatically when the vehicle reaches a certain speed or the driver demands more acceleration.
• Downsized Diesel engine: use of a Diesel-electric hybrid drivetrain allows a smaller Diesel engine to be used, thanks to the contribution of the electric motor. Urban operations, which inevitably involve lots of stopping and starting, therefore become far more economical, though the vehicle remains just as efficient and flexible as a normal commercial vehicle on the motorway.
Whether traction is provided entirely by the electric motor, entirely by the Diesel engine, or by a combination of the two, what would initially seem like a compromised drive system actually represents an exciting and innovative solution.
The ECODaily Diesel-electric parallel hybrid exhibited at Challenge Bibendum 2011 uses an FPT Industrial 16 valve, 2.3 litre Diesel engine developing 116 cv (85 kW) combined with a synchronous three phase electric motor-generator of 43 cv (32 kW).
An Agile gearbox acts as interface between the Diesel engine and the electric traction control systems, and automates gearshift and clutch functions to suit the driver’s needs. The vehicle therefore drives very much like a conventional commercial with an automated transmission.
The electric traction system is powered by high specific power lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries. The drive control system starts the vehicle moving in electric mode, automatically starts the Diesel engine when more performance is required, engages the electric motor in parallel during acceleration and on hills, stops the Diesel engine automatically as the vehicle slows down and comes to rest, and activates the regenerative braking system during deceleration.
Thanks to a top speed of 130 km/h, the ECODaily Hybrid is ideal not only for urban operations but for extra-urban use too, with the added benefit of a fuel saving of up to 30% under urban operations compared to a vehicle with a conventional Diesel engine.
The Eurocargo Hybrid was only available until now at 7.5 and 12 ton gvm versions: now the range has been extended with the addition of a 15 ton version specially conceived for municipal missions. The new 15 ton Eurocargo Hybrid is equipped with a Diesel-electric parallel drivetrain that is perfect for goods distribution and collection in urban areas and also ensures a good turn of speed on the motorway while consuming up to 30% less than an equivalent Diesel model under urban conditions.
The version provided for test drives at Challenge Bibendum 2011 is a 7.5 ton model with an FPT Industrial 16 valve, 4 cylinder, Euro V Tector Diesel engine delivering 160 cv (118 kW), associated with an electric traction system developed in collaboration with Eaton, consisting of a 60 cv (44 kW) motor-generator, an automated 6-speed gearbox and a pack of lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries with a rated capacity of 1.9 kWh.
The system starts the vehicle from stationary in electric mode and then starts the Diesel engine automatically when the driver needs more performance. The system also engages the electric motor in parallel when extra acceleration is required or when the vehicle encounters a hill, controls the Stop&Start function and activates the regenerative braking system on deceleration. Useful payload is reduced by only 200 kg compared to -Diesel models. Another innovative feature of this vehicle lies in the automatic activation of the engine brake during deceleration, even before the service brake is applied.
Natural gas vehicles
Iveco attributes a great deal of importance to natural gas as a fuel and boasts the widest range of CNG commercial vehicles in Europe. CNG fuelled vehicles have long been common in Italy and their further development is one of Iveco’s highest research priorities.
Iveco is a European leader in the construction and marketing of CNG vehicles, including trucks, vans and buses for various types of mission, especially urban operations.
Though Iveco’s Diesel vehicles conform to Euro V or even EEV standards and boast exceptionally low emission levels, emissions from its CNG vehicles already approach the requirements of the future Euro VI standard, due to be applied to heavy commercial vehicles and buses from 2014.
In addition, the Iveco stoichiometric combustion system (combustion at the chemically correct air/fuel ratio) on FPT natural gas engines with three-way catalytic converters is based on reliable and durable technology developed over many years in the light transport sector. This system makes it possible to detect the composition of the gas used and to adapt the functioning of the engine accordingly, keeping emissions low without sacrificing performance. Iveco is also developing its experience in vehicles fuelled by hydromethane – a mix of methane and hydrogen (up to 30%), offering interesting opportunities to reduce even more emissions of CO2.
Iveco CNG commercial vehicles can already use bio-methane, one of the renewable energy sources with the most promising credentials in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The ECOStralis is Iveco’s solution to the growing demand for a more environmentally friendly form of long distance transport.
The ECOStralis is both ecological and efficient, and is designed to cut operating costs too, especially fuel costs, which represent almost a third of the running costs of a modern commercial vehicle.
By combining advanced vehicle technology with intelligent considerations of load type and journey speeds, the ECOStralis reduces fuel costs by up to 10%.
The ECOStralis is available in AS, AD and AT versions, and can be equipped with FPT Industrial Cursor 10 Diesel engines developing between 420 cv (309 kW) and 460 cv (338 kW).
The Iveco Glider concept is inspired by the observation of nature. The design symbolises the metamorphosis of an eagle that glides as it descends, and finally becomes the Iveco Glider as it touches down. The Glider is a whole new concept in vehicle design and promises high productivity plus low environmental impact.
The concept focuses on two main ideas: energy efficiency and livability.
Maximum energy efficiency is achieved in four ways:
• on-board generation of renewable energy
• energy recovery
• extremely energy efficient architecture
• reduced resistance to motion
On-board generation of renewable energy
The Iveco Glider uses photovoltaic panels to generate renewable energy on board. The panels cover an area of approximately 2 m2 on the cab roof, which is continually blown clean by the airflow, thus ensuring maximum efficiency and the production of up to 2 kWh of energy per day.
In nature, evolution has rewarded rational energy usage and minimum wastage. Inspired by this principle, Iveco researchers have developed systems for recovering and using the kinetic energy that would otherwise be dissipated in the form of heat during braking, as well as engine heat that would otherwise be lost through the exhaust and the radiators.
Iveco’s Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) recovers sufficient energy to drive most of the vehicle’s auxiliary electrical systems.
On the Glider, the heat of the exhaust gases is converted into electrical energy by a thermo-dynamic system that works like a compact, efficient steam engine based on the Rankine cycle. A high efficiency heat exchanger is positioned in the exhaust line immediately after the emission control system and pressurises an organic fluid circuit that can function even at low temperatures.
This heat recovery system reduces the vehicle's fuel requirements by up to 10% on motorway missions.
The excess electricity not used by the auxiliary systems is stored in a specific high energy accumulator (Auxiliary Energy Unit) and can be used as an energy source when the vehicle is stationary.
Extremely energy efficient architecture
Total energy management means reducing not just waste but requirements too. High energy efficiency electric auxiliary equipment has therefore been installed on the Iveco Glider (including an electric air conditioning system with energy saving microclimate control), a new generation thermal system and full-LED internal and external lighting.
Reduced resistance to motion
Drawing inspiration from the advanced aerodynamics that permit a body to glide, a number of special features were developed and applied on the Glider to allow the vehicle to adapt its aerodynamic characteristics to the mission.
A new on-board thermal energy management system (Smart Cooling) combines with planar heat exchangers to allow cooling drag to be managed actively (Active Shutters), thus minimising the Glider’s coefficient of drag (Cx).
An innovative fifth wheel allows semi-trailers to be hitched up automatically and, more importantly, permits the gap between the tractor and the semi-trailer to be varied with the vehicle in motion, to minimise turbulence and drag.
Styling and interiors
The styling of the vehicle is based on the most efficient interpretation of external aerodynamics and optimises air flow across the engine bay and under the vehicle all the way to the rear extractor.
The aerodynamic effectiveness of the truck’s lines is enhanced by planar heat exchangers which act as fairings on the sides.
The Iveco Glider also embodies a new approach to livability, thanks to a vehicle interior designed around its occupants. The Iveco Glider’s interior is designed to re-interpret the three main functions of a cab on long distance haulage missions:
• DRIVING: better ergonomics mean more safety
• OFFICE: advanced technology means better productivity
• HOME: comfort and well-being are indispensable
To optimise “DRIVING” mode, the instrument panel is fixed to the steering wheel at an adjustable angle so that it is perfectly visible to the driver whatever the position of the steering wheel. The instrument panel is completely configurable and features a natural and intuitive interface that provides information efficiently and with reduced cognitive load. The interface can even be personalised to meet customer needs or those of the driving mission.
To allow effective use in “OFFICE” mode, a modern and comfortable work station has been provided on the passenger side. The smart control unit can be configured as a multi-functional computer and used on a console complete with worktop, drawers and drink holder.
Microclimate is another important aspect of on-board wellbeing. Controlled air emission in terms of temperature, speed, humidity and fragrance puts the driver at ease.
The Iveco Glider also includes a breathable dashboard and rear wall, developed in conjunction with Reiter Automotive: this innovative solution satisfies the need for a fixed and constant temperature inside the vehicle without draughts concentrated in limited areas of the vehicle.
In “HOME” mode, the Iveco Glider provides both leisure and personal care solutions. A Hotpoint-Aniston “Ivory” multi-purpose appliance provides all the functions of a real kitchen, from food storage to cooking, and even dish washing.
The sleeping area features a configurable bed. The bed folds upright and occupies very little space when not in use. And when needed, it can be arranged at whatever height the driver prefers.
Developments in the field of total space management allow the area at the rear of the cab interior to be used for relaxation, exercise, watching a film, reading or whatever the user wants to do.
The seats of the Iveco Glider deserve a special mention. The represent a “concept within a concept” and have been designed as a new generation seating system that combines ergonomics with configurability, style with functionality, and stylish materials with ease of maintenance.
The Iveco Glider also features sophisticated design solutions in the areas of lighting and 3D acoustics. The interior is lit by a combination of ambience lighting and spotlights that use the latest LED technology for reduced energy consumption, better performance and longer life. The ambience lighting system is designed specially for driving and relaxation. It does not tire the driver at the wheel, but during breaks allows occupants to relax fully and live in symbiosis with the vehicle. Finally, spotlights facilitate all those tasks that require proper illumination, with light focused on the area of the cab where the driver is working.